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The danger of GMOs, what it is, the impact on human health

At first glance, it may seem that the question of what benefits and harms of GMOs, is rhetorical, as any packaging in the supermarket there is a corresponding marking of the absence of the content of this component. So: it is harmful. However, the WHO conclusion does not give equally definite answer. The media are also subject to divergent views on this topic dangers of GMOs to human health. What is true and what is false, it is possible to understand only on the basis of facts.

What is a GMO

GMO stands for genetically modified organism, whose DNA was subjected to purposeful modification by genetic engineering techniques. Typically, the purpose of such experiments are connected with the use of scientific or economic necessity.

The first modified products in 1994 became the tomatoes from California whose storage period has increased by simply removing the gene responsible for the property decay. However, consumers did not appreciate innovation, and after 3 years the product was removed from the market. In 90-ies of XX century with the help of genetically engineered virus ringspot Hawaiian papaya crop was saved location antigen in its DNA. This has helped to make it sustainable and, ultimately, to save the region's harvest.

Genetic engineering methods are considered UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as the necessary technology in the development of agriculture sector. Such direct gene transfer is a new stage of selection technologies that create new varieties of plants, animals transmission characteristics and properties between a non-interbreeding species.

Question about the benefits or dangers of genetically modified foods is linked with the aim of methods. Three fourth modification of the main plant species - soya, rapeseed, corn, wheat, potatoes - spend usefully improve their resistance to effects of pesticides used to control weeds and insects, as well as for the production of plants with resistance to insects and viruses. Another useful purpose GMOs - is the creation of new products with improved quality vitamin and mineral composition: for example, with a high content of vitamin C or beta-carotene.

How to create a GMO

The process is based on creating so-called transgenes - DNA fragments which carry the body, the properties of which want to deliberately change. In the GMO can be hooked and multiple transgenes.

The gene or DNA fragment of the chain, which is responsible for the required property, with special enzymes (restriction endonuclease and ligase) "combined" in the right combination, including by inserting a special controller, which can disable it work. Thus, one can "program" the desired properties in the original is changed, the body by such "Assembly" of genes from other species that do not interbreed or in vivo, or methods breeding.

Are there any benefits of GMO products

As strange as it may sound in light of the stereotypes about the dangers of GMOs, but in a controlled environment, genetic engineering, as well as selection, - a tool that gives undoubted benefits person.

History modified Hawaiian papaya is a useful example. However, the fear of uncontrolled use of technology in the production of products that can also bring harm to humanity, turned into a protest movement Greenpeace. The activists, acting on charges of scientists geneticists in the experiments focus on the production of genetically modified foods against the laws of nature and therefore pose a threat to human health, papaya trees destroyed at the University of Hawaii, which made the problem of wide public resonance.

However, the arguments of the opponents of GMOs on the dangers of the use of technology in the production of products not recognized by science-off because it is believed that in nature there are also a certain percentage of random mutations, and furthermore perfect in terms of use of selection methods in fact aimed at creating the same "genetically modified" organisms.

At the beginning of this century, research data transgenic papaya Japanese scientists have confirmed the absence of its protein chain sequences corresponding to known allergens. After that, Japan opened the market for GMO products of this culture, thus making in the debate regarding the use of the impact of genetic engineering on human health an important proof. In addition to the ability of GM technology become a defense against viruses harm to plants and humans, they can also improve the useful properties of the products.

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