Plums: the benefits and harms health
Dec 20, 2019
Plum called small fruits orange and yellow, which are more common in the Caucasus, Crimea and Asia. But in our area plums common. This small fruit is due to the composition used in cosmetics, cooking and even improves health. We consider in detail what the benefits and harms of cherry plum.
Plums - fruit tree from the family of pink, and the subfamily plum. Cherry plum Homeland - South Caucasus. Translated from Azerbaijani means "small plum". Other names - tkemali and vishnesliva. Shrubs and trees are branched, thorny, have a brownish-green shoots. Plant height can vary from 3 to 10 m, depending on the species. Leaflets elliptical pointed upward. Vishnesliva blooms in late March, white or pink flowers, single. The fruits are round, have a yellow, pink, orange, red or purple drupe. Vishneslivy average diameter - 2.5 cm.
- Average and Asia Minor;
- Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus;
Inside the fruit has a bone, it is flat and well connected to the pulp. It is difficult to separate. Fetal skin velvety, covered with a thin layer of wax plaque. Vishnesliva has a pleasant aroma and sweet-sour taste.
Plums and plum - what is the difference
Though plums and plum called small and comes from this family, it has its own peculiarities and differences:
- Fruiting vishneslivy starts earlier, at about 20 days of March.
- The variety was bred by breeders, so it has more nutrients in the composition.
- Vishneslivy fruits rich in acid, that improve metabolism. It is an ideal product that you want to include people with excess weight.
- Vishnesliva used in folk medicine as a remedy for coughs and as a choleretic. And here is a simple drain is used to improve the condition of the bones and vision.
Visible and external differences. For example, the plum fruit are large and have a blue color. Vishneslivy fruit size is smaller and more varied colors. Yet it is more juicy, cherry plum jam is a more liquid.
Attention! Even the plants are different. Plum little more finicky and plums to temperature. However, the efforts of breeders have led to the removal of a cherry plum varieties that can even tolerate temperatures down to -30 ℃.
Chemical composition and caloric content of cherry plum
Plums characterized by the fact that, unlike other fruits, it has a small amount of sugar in the composition. Ripe fruit has up to 10% of sugar, usually 3-4%. Along with plum, vishnesliva rich in organic acids such as citric and malic. As part of the fruits of the B vitamins and PP, A and E. Any small amount of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and pectin.
List of micro- and macronutrients in the fruit:
- Phosphorus - 25 mg per 100 g
- Magnesium - 21 mg.
- Potassium - 188 mg.
- Iron - 1.9 mg.
- Calcium - 27 mg.
- Sodium - 17 mg.
Due to the chemical composition of fruits contribute to the assimilation of meat and fats. As for nutritional value, then vishnesliva 100 g is:
- Protein - 200 mg;
- dietary fiber - 1800 mg;
- ash - 500 mg;
- Fats - 100 mg;
- carbohydrates - 8000 mg;
- monosaccharides and disaccharides - 7800 mg;
- Water - 8900 mg;
- organic acid - 500 mg;
- starch - 100 mg;
- cellulose - 1800 mg.
Note! Depending on the color change and the chemical composition of the fruit. For example, bright yellow fruits rich in citric acid and sugar, and the tannins in them just yet. Vishnesliva Aronia is a source of pectin.
The percentage of all substances:
- Sugar - 5 to 10%.
- Pectin - 0.3 to 1.5%.
- Iron - 11%.
- Malic and citric acid, - from 1.5 to 4%.
- Ascorbic acid - 22%.
- Calcium - 3%.
- Phosphorus - 3%.
- Pro-vitamin A - 11%.
- Magnesium - 5%.
The ratio of protein / Fat / Carbohydrate - 2%: 3%: 93%. vishneslivy fruits can be called a low-calorie product. 100 g of yellow fruit falls 25-35 kcal. One standard vishneslivy fruit weighs 35 grams and is placed in a glass of 190 grams of fruit.
How useful plum
As part of the fruit is a lot of beneficial vitamins and minerals. Therefore, it is recommended to take to prevent and treat coughs, colds, or vitamin deficiencies. Nutritionists advise to include fruits in the daily diet of the elderly, children, pregnant and nursing mothers to fill in missing vitamins.
Vishnesliva stimulates the digestive tract, therefore it is used for constipation. A pectin and cellulose outputted radionuclide substance. The potassium content confirms that the plum should be used for those who suffer from heart disease. Regular intake is able to strengthen the heart muscle and prevent the occurrence of arrhythmias. And as part of the fruit sugar in a little bit, the fruit can be consumed for diabetics, obese and metabolic disorders.
Celebrating a calming and relaxing effect of cherry plum, its medicinal properties have a positive impact on the central nervous system and normalizes blood pressure. And due to the high amount of Vitamin A and C alycha it has an antioxidant effect. Fruit juice quenches thirst, and fruit drinks increases the appetite and the digestive tract.
The list of properties of the fruit vishneslivy: immunomodulatory, bracing, diaphoretic, laxative, antitussive, tonic, antioxidant.
For the treatment of gynecological disorders fruit vishneslivy not used because no therapeutic properties do not provide. Use is above effects on the body. Fruits are rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for good health for women.
But for the male power plum is very useful. It is advised to use for impotence. Enough to make tincture of cherry plum flowers with addition of water, and in this form it can take. Tincture is useful in case of violation of the liver and kidney in men.
Plants are able to improve the intestinal peristalsis, stimulating its work.
For pregnant women and children
Though medical plum is not used, but the doctors advise to include it in the diet of pregnant and lactating mothers, as cherry plum benefit to the woman's body is invaluable. It is a source of vitamins and minerals that are needed in a child wearing period. However, pregnant women can not abuse it, because it may affect the baby's health.
If we talk about the children, the babies under 10 months, giving it is strictly prohibited. Towards the year the kids are allowed to do mash liquor in an amount of half a teaspoon, such portion will not cause an allergic reaction to the fruit. Fruits are used only yellow. In later years the children should be added to the diet vishneslivu that would fill in the missing body of vitamins and minerals.
Useful properties of green cherry plum
In the immature state of the fruit is also very useful. Vitamin C content reaches 14%. Green fruit used for low-cost production of citric and malic acid. They are popular cooking in cooking of meat, also served as a side dish and sauces. Unripe fruits give zest to the dish, as well as contribute to the rapid assimilation of food.
Green fruit - a great antioxidant. They are used by beauticians to rejuvenate and cleanse the body. More on this later.
Using in cosmetology
Fruits vishneslivy protect against adverse environmental factors. Masks of fruits, home made, will allow to remove the shine from the skin, giving it matt.
- 1-2 ripe cherry plum crush.
- Pour warm water, purified, leaving to infuse overnight. 100 g of the liquid sufficiently.
When the skin rash enough to wipe half a cherry plum, these areas will dry up the rash. The content of vitamin C, provitamin A can slow the aging process and sagging skin, condition improves. To rejuvenate the skin on the face, neck and décolleté area, is required to impose a mask from the pulp and crushed seeds. Hold 20 minutes. This will help get rid of pimples and acne.
Fruits vishneslivy help and hair. It is necessary to make the broth: 0.5 liters of water add fresh fruits, milled. They should rinse your hair after shampooing. A decoction of the roots is able to enhance, restore silkiness and shine to hair.
The use of cherry plum for medicinal purposes
To improve digestion and increase appetite you must drink the broth and stewed cherry plum fruit. It is indicated in low acid gastritis. And with diseases of the respiratory character is infusion and decoction, which rinse the throat, it is used for cough.
Recipe infusion of cherry plum:
- Take 1 tbsp. l. dried cherry plum.
- Cover up all in a thermos.
- Pour boiling water to 0.2 liter.
- Brew infusion for 5 hours.
- Strain the broth through cheesecloth.
Taking medicine from plum fruits need 3 times a day in an amount of 60 mg before a meal.
Recipe of the leaves and flowers:
- Take 30 g of flowers and leaves.
- Boil two cups of water and pour over the sheets.
- Leave a cure for 3-4 hours.
- Strain it through cheesecloth.
Frequency of receiving infusion - 3 times a day in an amount of 100 mg before a meal.
Used in cooking
Cherry plum is not only useful but also delicious. Often found in cooking sweet and sour sauce, cherry plum, which is loved by gourmets. Fruit are used as a fresh, or as preservation.
Since plums - this sweet fruit, the fruits are used to make jam, syrup, jellies, pastes, jellies, marmalades and jams.
From cherry plum compote is cooked, teas and tasty wine. Caucasians made from the pulp of the pita. It has a pleasant taste and the dish turns out nutritious and dietary. Pita stored for a long time, to prevent the development of scurvy. Another fruit of just baked or dried fruits do.
Tkemali of cherry plum
Small plum - the main product for the Georgian sauce tkemali. It is ideal for grilled or broiled fish, meat, pasta, potatoes or a bird.
The list of ingredients:
- varieties of fruit vishneslivy tkemali (fresh);
- dill, red and black pepper, coriander and other spices (required marsh mint - Ombay).
To prepare to pour plum with water and simmer for about 40 minutes. The resulting mass is removed from the heat, cool down, and then frays with the broth through a sieve. Peel and bones discarded. This mash is put on a slow fire and boiled, to get the consistency of sour cream. The sauce is added to the grated garlic, cilantro, salt, dill and red pepper. When it comes to a boil, then remove from heat. Stored in the refrigerator.
Caloric tkemali - 42 g per 100 kcal wherein protein 2 g and 8 g Carbohydrate The sauce is filled with organic acids, vitamin PP, C A, B1, B2, E, and trace elements. He improves digestion and speeds up the metabolic processes in the body.
The use of seeds and flowers of cherry plum
From seed obtained fatty oil. The content of vegetable oil in which about 42%. The properties and the quality is close to the vegetable oil of almond. The oil contains amygdalin. With water and emulsin it is decomposed into glucose, hydrocyanic acid and benzoic aldehyde.
The note! Cherry plum kernel oil is used for cosmetics, in the cooking of soap, perfumes.
When extracting oil from the seed meal is formed, to which 70% of protein. Their meal is plant casein. A shell of plum is used to create an activated (active) carbon since the 1930s.
With respect to flowers, they are useful for diseases of the liver and kidneys in the form of an aqueous tincture. The same concerns and the reproductive system of men, infusion of flowers improves potency.
Useful properties of cherry plum leaves
After cultivation, they are dried, as plum leaves have unique properties. It contains vitamins, such as PP, A, E and B vitamins, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, calcium, sodium and potassium. The leaves are added to the condiment that promote the absorption of fat and meat.
plum leaves can be kept long and their brewed for the treatment of coughs and colds, anemia and vitamin deficiency, impotence, diseases of liver and kidneys and gastrointestinal diseases and cardiovascular system. The infusion calms and relaxes, helps to cope with stress. The leaves are used to create a multi-component collection that fights inflammation, varicose veins, uterine bleeding.
How to dry plum
There are several ways to do this:
In Central Asia, plums dried naturally under the influence of the sun. The method is excellent, but the drying time is quite long. In addition to the plum can sit flies and other insects, as well as dust accumulates. The easiest way to use Electric driers.
It is enough to throw a cherry plum washed without removing the bones, into the dryer. If you remove the bones, the plums begin to spread, dried skin is left alone. Plums are dried for the winter like candy, only with no added sugar.
Contraindications and possible harm
In addition to the benefit, plum has its contraindications. Namely:
- Idiosyncrasy, she's allergic.
- Gout and rheumatism.
- When the disease of the stomach, in which there is increased secretion of gastric juice.
- Canker gostroduodentalnoy area.
- Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
- Gastritis, wherein the gastric acidity increased.
- Children under 12 years old to use a lot of dried cherry plum impossible.
Any product in large quantities can harm. With overeating fruit vishneslivy observed heartburn, diarrhea and poisoning.
Selection and storage of cherry plum
Tips on how to choose a good fruit vishneslivy and store them:
- If the fruit is ripe, it has a pleasant smell.
- There are no scratches on the fruit, dimming and dents.
- If the fruit is too soft, then it's ripe and quickly deteriorate.
- White patches on the skin vishneslivy - this is normal.
- Storage in its original form in the refrigerator may be a few days. In winter plum can be frozen.
If you put the fruit in a plastic bag, they can be stored for several months. Selected neperezrevshie fruit without defects.
The pouch is filled 2/3 and placed in a refrigerator.
Benefits and harms of cherry plum made it an indispensable product in the diet. Due to the composition and the positive effects on the body of the fruit is so highly valued. Plums used in cosmetics, folk medicine and cooking. Following detailed recipes, it is possible to get rid of various diseases. Since the cultivation and care of plants simple, it is possible to breed a culture at the garden.
A source: https://poleznii-site.ru/pitanie/frukty/alycha-polza-i-vred-dlya-zdorovya.html